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SHP (small heterodimer partner) is a well-known NR (nuclear receptor) co-regulator. In the present study, we have identified a new SHP-interacting protein, termed SMILE (SHP-interacting leucine zipper protein), which was previously designated as ZF (Zhangfei) via a yeast two-hybrid system. We have determined that the SMILE gene generates two isoforms [SMILE-L (long isoform of SMILE) and SMILE-S (short isoform of SMILE)]. Mutational analysis has demonstrated that the SMILE isoforms arise from the alternative usage of initiation codons. We have confirmed the in vivo interaction and co-localization of the SMILE isoforms and SHP. Domain-mapping analysis indicates that the entire N-terminus of SHP and the middle region of SMILE-L are involved in this interaction. Interestingly, the SMILE isoforms counteract the SHP repressive effect on the transactivation of ERs (estrogen receptors) in HEK-293T cells (human embryonic kidney cells expressing the large T-antigen of simian virus 40), but enhance the SHP-repressive effect in MCF-7, T47D and MDA-MB-435 cells. Knockdown of SMILE gene expression using siRNA (small interfering RNA) in MCF-7 cells increases ER-mediated transcriptional activity. Moreover, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of SMILE and SHP down-regulates estrogen-induced mRNA expression of the critical cell-cycle regulator E2F1. Collectively, these results indicate that SMILE isoforms regulate the inhibition of ER transactivation by SHP in a cell-type-specific manner and act as a novel transcriptional co-regulator in ER signalling.

Abstract Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) develop a variety of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). We previously characterized a murine model of neurogenic bladder dysfunction induced by a neurotropic strain of a coronavirus. In the present study, we further study the role of long-lasting neurodegeneration on the development of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in mice with corona-virus induced encephalitis (CIE). Long-term follow up study revealed three phenotypes of neurodegenerative symptom development: recovery (REC group), chronic progression (C-PRO group) and chronic disease with relapsing-remitting episodes (C-RELAP group). The levels of IL-1β in REC group, IL-10 in C-RELAP group, and IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α in C-PRO group were diminished in the brain. The levels of TNF-α in REC group and INF-γ, IL-2, TGF-β and TNF-α in the C-PRO group were also diminished in the urinary bladder. Mice in C-RELAP group showed a delayed recovery of voiding function. In vitro contractility studies determined a decreased basal detrusor tone and reduced amplitude of nerve-mediated contractions in C-RELAP group, whereas C-PRO group had elevated muscle-mediated contractions. In conclusion, mice with CIE developed three phenotypes of neurologic impairment mimicking different types of MS progression in humans and showed differential mechanisms driving neurogenic bladder dysfunction.

Abstract Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone that is vital for the regulation of metabolic homeostasis. In the present study, we report that Kruppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) is a novel mediator of b-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2)-induced FGF21 biosynthesis. The expression levels of hepatic Fgf21, Btg2, and Klf15, and the production of serum FGF21 increased significantly in fasted and forskolin (FSK)-treated mice. The overexpression of Btg2 using an adenoviral delivery system elevated FGF21 production by upregulating Klf15 transcription. Interaction studies indicated that BTG2 was co-immunoprecipitated with KLF15 and recruited by the Fgf21 promoter. The disruption of hepatic Btg2 and Klf15 genes markedly attenuated the induction of Fgf21 expression and FGF21 biosynthesis in fasted mice. Similarly, the FSK-mediated induction of Fgf21 promoter activity was strikingly ablated by silencing of Btg2 and Klf15. Taken together, these findings suggest that KLF15 and BTG2 are mediators of fasting-induced hepatic FGF21 expression. Therefore, targeting BTG2 and KLF15 might be a therapeutically important strategy for combat metabolic dysfunction.

SMILE (small heterodimer partner interacting leucine zipper protein) has been identified as a coregulator in ER signaling. In this study, we have examined the effects of SMILE on other NRs (nuclear receptors). SMILE inhibits GR, CAR and HNF4α-mediated transactivation. Knockdown of SMILE gene expression increases the transactivation of the NRs. SMILE interacts with GR, CAR and HNF4α in vitro and in vivo. SMILE and these NRs colocalize in the nucleus. SMILE binds to the ligand-binding domain or AF2 domain of the NRs. Competitions between SMILE and the coactivators GRIP1 or PGC-1α have been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, an intrinsic repressive activity of SMILE is observed in Gal4-fusion system, and the intrinsic repressive domain is mapped to the C-terminus of SMILE, spanning residues 203–354. Moreover, SMILE interacts with specific HDACs (histone deacetylases) and SMILE-mediated repression is released by HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A, in a NR-specific manner. Finally, ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) assays reveal that SMILE associates with the NRs on the target gene promoters. Adenoviral overexpression of SMILE represses GR-, CAR- and HNF4α-mediated target gene expression. Overall, these results suggest that SMILE functions as a novel corepressor of NRs via competition with coactivators and the recruitment of HDACs.


Affiliations 2
Journals 3
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The Biochemical journal
Nucleic Acids Research