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Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported among patients in China. Currently, the disease is quickly spreading worldwide. The pathogen of COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]), identified as a member of the Coronaviridae family. Another coronavirus, named SARS-CoV-1, was responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome.1 Compared with SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2 has a similar binding receptor and similar pathologic features systemically and epidemiological characteristics.1,2 Although there is no direct evidence that SARS-CoV-1 replication results in conjunctivitis and other ocular diseases, reports have emphasized the eye as a potential site for virus transmission.3 Similarly, SARS-CoV-2 transmission through the eye has been suspected.
Nevertheless, there are no reports in the medical literature at this time, to our knowledge, that identify a direct relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and the eye. Researchers have not reported ocular abnormalities nor have they stated in the medical literature if there was conjunctivitis or viral presence detected in the tears of patients with COVID-19. The objective of this study was to evaluate ocular involvement systematically in patients highly suspected of having or confirmed to have COVID-19.
Of the 38 consecutive patients with COVID-19 who were recruited, 25 (65.8%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 65.8 (16.6) years (Table 1). Among them, 28 patients (73.7%) had positive findings for COVID-19 on RT-PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs, and of these, 2 patients (5.2%) yielded positive findings for SARS-CoV-2 in their conjunctival as well as nasopharyngeal specimens. The other 10 patients who were hospitalized were judged to have COVID-19 by the guideline of PC-NCP,4 with fever and/or respiratory symptoms and lung computed tomography imaging features of COVID-19 pneumonia.
A total of 12 of 38 patients (31.6%; 95% CI, 17.5-48.7) had ocular manifestations consistent with conjunctivitis, including conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis, epiphora, and increased secretions (Table 2). Among these 12 patients, there were 4 cases judged as moderate, 2 cases judged as severe, and 6 cases judged as critical, which was graded according to the guideline of PC-NCP4: moderate indicated fever and/or respiratory symptoms and lung computed tomography imaging findings; severe indicated dyspnea (respiratory frequency of 30 cycles per minute or greater), blood oxygen saturation of 93% or less, and an arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of oxygen inspiration ratio of 300 or less; and critical indicated respiratory failure or shock or multiple organ dysfunction/failure.4 In these patients, 1 patient experienced epiphora as the first symptom of COVID-19. None of them experienced blurred vision. By univariate analysis, patients with ocular symptoms were more likely to have higher white blood cell and neutrophil counts and higher levels of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, and lactate dehydrogenase than patients without ocular symptoms (Table 1). In addition, 11 of 12 patients with ocular abnormalities (91.7%; 95% CI, 61.5-99.8) had positive results for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR from nasopharyngeal swabs. Of these, 2 (16.7%) had positive results for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR from both conjunctival and nasopharyngeal swabs.
Few previous investigations have evaluated ocular signs and symptoms in patients infected with SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2. A few reports have evaluated for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in tear fluid.3,5 Our investigation suggests that among patients with COVID-19, 31.6% (95% CI, 17.5-48.7) have ocular abnormalities, with most among patients with more severe systemic manifestations or abnormal findings on blood tests. These results suggest that ocular symptoms commonly appear in patients with severe pneumonia.
Our results show a low prevalence (5.2%; 95% CI, 0.6-17.8) of SARS-CoV-2 nucleotides in conjunctival specimens of patients with COVID-19, consistent with previous studies on severe acute respiratory syndrome.3 Of note, we found only 1 patient presenting with conjunctivitis as the first symptom. Previous reports have shown the shedding of potentially infectious virus can occur in people who have no fever and minor or absent signs of infection.6 Because unprotected eyes were associated with an increased risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-1,7 in support of our current results, our results might suggest that SARS-CoV-2 might be transmitted through the eye.
Limitations of this study include a relatively small sample size and absence of detailed ocular examinations to exclude intraocular disease owing to the logistical challenges of managing these patients at this time. In addition, we only sampled once from the eye of each patient, which can decrease the prevalence owing to false-negatives. Regardless, these preliminary results are shared in an effort to inform ophthalmologists and others around the world regarding ocular symptoms with COVID-19.
Accepted for Publication: March 17, 2020.
Role of the Funder/Sponsor: The funder had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Additional Contributions: We thank Haijiang Zhang, MD, Minxing Wu, MD, and Min Liu, MD (Yichang Central People’s Hospital, Yichang, China), for collecting the data and preparing the Table. None of these individuals received compensation for their contributions.

Introduction Repeat ablation strategy for atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence after multiple ablation procedures is known to be challenging. This study evaluated the insights of adjunctive ablation for epicardial arrhythmogenic substrates in those patients via a percutaneous epicardial approach. Methods and Results Thirty‐five consecutive patients with AF/atrial tachycardia (AT) recurrence, who had two or more prior ablation procedures, were enrolled from September 2016 to December 2018. In addition to a standard endocardial approach, epicardial mapping and ablation were performed via a percutaneous subxiphoid access in the electrophysiology lab. Adjunctive epicardial ablations for left lateral ridge (LLR) were performed in 31 of 35 patients (88.6%) for efficient transmural lesions with pacing capture loss. Marshall Bundle (MB) potentials were documented on epicardial LLR in three patients and abolished by direct epicardial ablation. Bachmann's bundle (BB) was ablated as an epicardial conduction gap in four patients with a refractory anterior wall line. Two epicardial AT/AF triggers were detected followed by successful termination with epicardial ablation. No periprocedural complications occurred. About 23 of 35 patients (65.7%) remained free from AF/AT after 23.2 ± 9 months of the procedure. Conclusions Patients with multiple failed prior AF procedures refractory to antiarrhythmic therapy might warrant a percutaneous epicardial mapping and ablation strategy, with adjunctive therapy for targeting LLR/MB, BB, and underlying epicardial triggers in addition to a standard endocardial approach.

Background Adequate diagnosis of acute anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (AION) is challenging to achieve with traditional medical imaging approaches. The aim of this study was to evaluate the detection capacity of diffusion tensor imaging for abnormalities of the optic nerve in acute AION patients. Methods Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected from 31 patients with acute AION and 20 healthy subjects. The mean fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion co‐efficient subsequently were evaluated across all subjects. Results In affected nerves, the mean fractional anisotropy was reduced and the mean apparent diffusion co‐efficient was increased in acute AION patients compared with control nerves (p < 0.001), as well as clinically unaffected contralateral nerves (p < 0.001). The mean fractional anisotropy and apparent diffusion co‐efficient demonstrated no difference between normal control nerves and clinically unaffected contralateral nerves (p = 0.73 and 0.92, respectively). Conclusion Diffusion tensor imaging of the optic nerves demonstrated diagnostic potential for acute AION and could serve as a novel tool for the detection and evaluation of therapies.

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